Basic Approach

“Sigma” means standard deviation and therefore Six Sigma means six standard deviations.

Master Black Belt

Black Belt recognized and selected by management in companies or plant as he/she has superior knowledge of Six Sigma Methodology


Roadmap FMEA

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Procedure of FMEA

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The process to lead a FMEA is direct.
The basic steps are:

1. It describes producto/proceso and his function. An understanding of the product or the process under consideration is important to have articulated clearly. This understanding simplifies the process of the analysis helping to the engineer to identify those applications of producto/proceso that lower within the predicted function and that they lower outside.

2. It creates a block diagram of the product or proce it to it. A block diagram of producto/proceso must be developed. This diagram demonstrates to important components or passages of process like blocks connected together by the lines that they indicate how the components or the steps are related. The diagram demonstrates to the relations logics of components and establishes a structure around which the FMEA can be developed. Establish a system of the codification to identify elements of the system. The block diagram is due to always include with the FMEA form. The head in the worksheet of the FMEA form finishes: Producto/Sistema, Subsistema./Montaje, component, lead of the design, were prepared close, date, revision (letter or number), and date of the revision. Modify these titles according to the needed thing.

3. Use the prepared diagram above to begin articles or functions of the listing. If the articles are component, enumérelos of a logical way underneath their subsistema/asamblea based on the block diagram.

4. Identify The Ways De Fallo. A failure way is defined as the way in which a component, a subsystem, a system, a process, a etc. could potentially not be able to solve the attempt of calculation.

The examples of the potential ways of failure include: or electrical hydrogen Corrosion or Fragility or Short or opened or to Fatigue Of the Effort of torsion or Deformation or cracking themselves

1. A way of failure in a component can serve as the cause as a way of failure in another component. Each lack is due to enumerate in technical terms. The failure ways are due to enumerate for the function of each passage of the component or the process. To this point the failure way must be identified if or the lack is not probable to happen. To watch similar products or processes and the lack that have been documented for them is a to begin with excellent point.

2. Describe the effects of those ways of failure. For each way of identified failure the engineer must determine itself which will be the last effect. An effect of the lack is defined as result a way of failure in the function of producto/proceso according to the perceived thing by the client. They must be described in terms of which it could see the client or experience if it happens the way of identified failure. Remember internal as well as the external client. The examples of the effects of the lack include: or Injury to the user or Inoperabilidad of the product or the process or incorrect Aspect of the product or the process or Scents or degraded Operation or Noise Establish a numerical graduation for the severity of the effect. A standard scale of the common industry uses 1 not to represent no effect and 10 to indicate very severe with the lack that affects the operation and the security of system without the warning. The attempt of the graduation is to help the analyst to determine if a lack would be an annoyance of smaller importance or a catastrophic occurrence to the client. This allows the engineer to give the priority to the lack and to treat true great editions first.

1. Identify the causes for each way of failure. A cause of the lack is defined as weakness of the design that can give rise to a lack. The potential causes for each way of failure must be identified and to be documented. The causes are due to enumerate in technical terms and not in terms of symptoms.

The potential examples of causes include:
or the incorrect effort of torsion was applied
or to incorrect Conditions of operation
or erroneous Contamination
or Algorithms
or incorrect Alignment
or excessive Shipment
or excessive Voltage

1. Incorporate the factor of the probability. A numerical weight is due to assign to each cause that it indicates how that cause is probably (probability of the cause that happens). A standard scale of the common industry uses 1 to represent not probably and 10 to indicate inevitable.

2. Identify the present controls (design or process). The present controls (design or process) are the mechanisms that they avoid that it happens the cause of the failure way or that they detected the lack before they reach to client. The engineer must now identify techniques of the test, the analysis, the supervision, and other that can or be used in such or productos/procesos similars to detect lack. Each one of these controls to determine how this, is hoped that it identifies or detects failure ways. After a new product or a process has been in the previously unnoticed use or the identified ways of failure cannot appear. The FMEA must then be updated and formulated plans to try those lack to eliminate them of producto/proceso.

3. Determine the probability of the detection. The detection is a burden of the probability that the present controls (design and process) will detect the cause of the way of failure or the way of failure itself, thus avoiding that reaches to the client. In agreement with the present controls, it considers the probability of the detection using the following table for the direction.

4, Risk Priority Numbers (RPN). The RPN is a mathematical product of the numerical degrees of severity, the probability and the detection. RPN = (Severity) x (Probability) x (Detection). The RPN is used to give to priority to articles the planning or the additional action of the quality.

5. Determine Recommended Actions (It determines Recommended Action(s)) to treat the potential lack that a high RPN has. These actions could include: Specific procedures of the inspection, the test or the quality; selection of diverse components or materials; reducing the normal capacity; limitation of environmental stresses or the rank of operation; readjustment of the article to avoid the failure way; supervision of mechanisms; execution of preventive maintenance; and inclusion of the systems or the redundancy of spare part.

6. Assign to the responsibility and a date of the completion in target for these actions. This makes responsabilidaad net and facilitates the pursuit.

7. Indicate the taken actions. After these actions have been taken, it again values severity, the probability and the detection and reviews the reviewed RPN. Any other action

8. is required more Ponga to the day the FMEA as the changes in the design or process, the changes of the burden or the new information


Synchronization of FMEA

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The FMEA is an alive document. Through development cycle of the product, change and the updates that become in the product and process. These changes often can and introduce new ways of failure. It is therefore important to review and/or to bring up to date the FMEA when:
  • A new product or a process is beginning (at the beginning of the cycle).
  • The changes are made to the conditions of operation of the product or it hopes that the process works inside.
  • A change is made to the product or design of the process. The product and the process are correlated. When the product design changes is affected the process and vice versa.
  • The new regulations are instituted.
  • The regeneration of client indicates problems in the product or the process


Benefits of FMEA

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FMEA is designed to assist the engineer improve the quality and reliability of design. Properly used the FMEA provides the engineer several benefits. Among others, these benefits include:

* Improve product/process reliability and quality
* Increase customer satisfaction
* Early identification and elimination of potential product/process failure modes
* Prioritize product/process deficiencies
* Capture engineering/organization knowledge
* Emphasizes problem prevention
* Documents risk and actions taken to reduce risk
* Provide focus for improved testing and development
* Minimizes late changes and associated cost
* Catalyst for teamwork and idea exchange between functions


Use of FMEA

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Historically, the engineers have done a good work of evaluating the functions and the form of products and of processes in the phase of the design. They have not always done so well in designing in reliability and quality.

The engineer uses safety factors as way of making sure that the design will work and it protected often user against product or absence in the process.According to the described in a recent article:

"a great factor of safety does not translate necessarily to a reliable product. In place, it often leads to redesigned the product with problems of the trustworthiness."

FMEA provides to the engineer a tool that can attend the reliable supplying, safe, the pleasant products and the processes of the client.

Since the FMEA aid the engineer identifies the potential product or lack of process, they can use it:
* They develop the product or the process requisites that limit to the minimum the probability of these absences.
* Evaluate the obtained requisites of the client or of other participants in the process of the design to make sure that these requisites do not introduce potential absences.
* They identify the characteristics of the design that they contribute to the absences and design them out of the system or limit to the minimum at least the effects that prove.
* They develop the methods and the procedures to develop and to prove the product / process to make sure that the absences have been eliminated successfully.
* He continues and handles the potential risks in the design. To continue the risks contributes to the development of the corporate memory and of the success of the future products also.
* Make sure that any absence that might happen should not damage or affects seriously client of the product / process.


Types of FMEA

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There are several types of FMEA, something is used much more often that others. FMEA must be always done whenever the lack meant damage or potential injury to the user of the article of the end that is designed.

The types of FMEA are:
* System - centers in global functions of the system
* Design - centers in components and subsystems
* Process - centers in processes of the manufacture and assemblies
* Service - centers in functions of the service
* Software - centers in functions of software


Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

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The clients are bringing increasing suits in the companies for the high quality, reliable products. The capacities and the functionality of increase of many products are making more difficult so that the manufacturers maintain the quality and the trustworthiness. Traditionally, the trustworthiness has been reached with the extensive test and the use of techniques such as to model probabilistic of the trustworthiness. These technical are done in the last stages of the development. The challenge is to design in quality and early trustworthiness in the development cycle. The analysis of the ways and the effects of failure (FMEA) is methodology to analyze potential problems of the early trustworthiness in the development cycle where it is easier to take actions to surpass these editions, of such way heightening trustworthiness with design. FMEA is used to identify potential ways of failure, to determine their effect on the operation of the product, and to identify actions to attenuate the lack. A crucial step is anticipating what could go badly with a product. Whereas to anticipate each way of failure it is not possible, the equipment of the development must formulate so extensive a list of the potential ways of failure as it is possible. The early and constant use of FMEA in the process of the design allows that the engineer designs outside lack and produces reliable, safe pleasant products, and of the client. FMEA also captures the historical information for the use in the future improvement of the product.

Basic Approach

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Six Sigma Structure

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Yellow Belt

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A person who completed 3 to 5 days Six Sigma training course developed to teach a part of Six Sigma tools effective to particular needs at a site . The course must be registered at corporate Six Sigma office.


Certified Green Belt

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Corporate Six Sigma Office certifies and issues certificate to Green Belt who complete or was a member of 2 successfully completed Six Sigma Projects and recognized by area Six Sigma Promotion office as he/she has excellent knowledge of Six Sigma methodology.


Green Belt

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Green Belt is a person completed Six Sigma Green Belt training course by corporate Six Sigma Office. Green Belt is to be selected by Champions as he/she has basic knowledge of process Green Belt plays the key role of actual improvement at the site under supervision of Black Belt.


Master Black Belt

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Black Belt recognized and selected by management in companies or plant as he/she has superior knowledge of Six Sigma Methodology as well as leadership and training skill is eligible to attend Master Black Belt training course recognized by corporate six sigma office. Corporate six sigma office certifies as Master Black Belt those who completed Master Black Belt course and recognized by area Six Sigma office as he/she has enough experience of Six Sigma training and suitable to be a Six Sigma mentor. Master Black Belt receives certificates issued by corporate six sigma office.


Certified Black Belt

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Corporate Six Sigma Office certifies and issue certificate to Black Belt who is recognized by regional Six Sigma Promotion Office as he/she has an excellent knowledge of Six Sigma methodology and successfully completed at least two Six Sigma Projects.


Black Belt

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Black Belt is a person who completed Six Sigma Black Belt training Course by corporate Six Sigma office. Black Belt is to be selected by Champion as he/she basic knowledge and leadership necessary. Black Belt promotes the Siz Sigma projects set by Champion with coordination of Green Belts. Black Belt also supports Champion in setting up most appropriate Six Sigma projects. A Black Belt that has completed their training, but has not yet been referred to as a Black Belt candidate.



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Champion is a person who completed Six Sigma champion Training Course recognized by Corporate Six Sigma Office. Champion is to be selected by the management at the site and are capable of managing necessary resources. Champion selects Black Belt who work as the Six Sigma project leaders and sets up the most important projects in the operation. Champion also supports Black Belt with management to eliminate various barriers that he/she may encounter during project activities.


The Six Sigma Methodology

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A classic definition: "Six Sigma is a process-focused methodology designed to improve

business performance through improving specific areas of a strategic business processes.".

From this alone it is clear why there are a number of parallels with ITIL, although six

sigma of course isn't restricted to information technology.

Sigma is a symbol meaning how much deviation exists in a set of data - sometimes called a

bell curve, or a standard normal distribution. In a standard normal distribution, 50% of

the values lie above the mean (average) and 50% of the values lie below. In Statistics we

take it a step further and delineate certain data points within that timeline.

The diagram may look tricky to read, but in simple language: Consider that you run a pizza

delivery business and you set a target of delivering pizza’s within 25 minutes of receiving

the order. If you achieve that 68% of the time, you are running at 1 Sigma. If you achieve

it 99.9997% of the time then you are at 6 Sigma (or you are late on average only 3.4 times

out of every one million orders).

That is fundamentally how six sigma measures quality. It measures the Variance and does not

rely on the Mean.

It is argued that all too often businesses base their performance on a mean, or

average-based measure, of the recent past. However, reality is that customers DON'T judge

businesses on averages. They actually experience the variance in each and every transaction

or purchase.

Customers also value consistent and predictable business processes and products that

deliver high levels of quality. Six Sigma focuses first on reducing variation, and then on

improving process capability.


Six Sigma levels

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“Sigma” means standard deviation and therefore Six Sigma means six standard deviations.

Sigma Level Defects per Million Defects as Percent

One Sigma 690,000.0 69.0000%
Two Sigma 308,000.0 30.8000%
Three Sigma 66,800.0 6.6800%
Four Sigma 6,210.0 0.6210%
Five Sigma 230.0 0.0230%
Six Sigma 3.4 0.0003%

The objective of Six Sigma is only 3.4 defects (or errors) out of every million defect opportunities. This translates into 99.99966% perfection.


Process Flow

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Visual representation of all steps and decision points in process
1.Evaluate process performance
2.Determine process bottle neck
3.Identify non-added value activities which should be deleted or modify
4.Identify new process steps to be added to improve overall performance
5.To breakdown big problem into smaller problem which can be handled easier


Pareto Chart

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. By Kerri Simon
Vilfredo Pareto was an economist who is credited with establishing what is now
widely known as the Pareto Principle or 80/20 rule. When he discovered the principle,
it established that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population.
Later, he discovered that the pareto principle was valid in other parts of his life,
such as gardening: 80% of his garden peas were produced by 20% of the peapods.
Some Sample 80/20 Rule Applications
•80% of process defects arise from 20% of the process issues.
•20% of your sales force produces 80% of your company revenues.
•80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of the possible causes of the delays.
•80% of customer complaints arise from 20% of your products or services

A pareto chart is used to graphically summarize and display
the relative importance of the differences between groups of data.

About 80% of the problems are
from 20% of the causes
differences between groups of data.


Six Sima Intro

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Six Sigma (6) is a business-driven, multi-faceted approach to process improvement, reduced costs, and increased profits. With a fundamental principle to improve customer satisfaction by reducing defects, its ultimate performance target is virtually defect-free processes and products (3.4 or fewer defective parts per million (ppm)). The Six Sigma methodology, consisting of the steps "Define - Measure - Analyze - Improve - Control," is the roadmap to achieving this goal. Within this improvement framework, it is the responsibility of the improvement team to identify the process, the definition of defect, and the corresponding measurements. This degree of flexibility enables the Six Sigma method, along with its toolkit, to easily integrate with existing models of software process implementation.

Six Sigma originated at Motorola in the early 1980s in response to a CEO-driven challenge to achieve tenfold reduction in product-failure levels in five years. Meeting this challenge required swift and accurate root-cause analysis and correction. In the mid-1990s, Motorola divulged the details of their quality improvement framework, which has since been adopted by several large manufacturing companies.


Six Sigma

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Six Sigma is a system of practices originally developed by Motorola to systematically improve processes by eliminating defects. Defects are defined as units that are not members of the intended population. Since it was originally developed, Six Sigma has become an element of many Total Quality Management (TQM) initiatives.

The process was pioneered by Bill Smith at Motorola in 1986 and was originally defined as a metric for measuring defects and improving quality, and a methodology to reduce defect levels below 3.4 defects per (one) million opportunities (DPMO).

Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola, Inc. Motorola has reported over US$17 billion in savings from Six Sigma as of 2006.

In addition to Motorola, companies which also adopted Six Sigma methodologies early-on and continue to practice it today include Bank of America, Caterpillar, Honeywell International (previously known as Allied Signal), Raytheon, Merrill Lynch and General Electric (introduced by Jack Welch).

Recently Six Sigma has been integrated with the TRIZ methodology for problem solving and product design.

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